I get a lot of questions from readers, and most of the time, the answers are fairly short. When I feel the question or the reply would be valuable to others as well, I make a post with a collection of them and post them in one go. Today is one of those posts.


"Is there any way around having to use blood in certain sacrifices?"

So, I’ve read your question a couple of times and I am left wondering what information you have been reading that focusses so specifically on blood. If it’s a source for a specific rite then maybe there isn’t. If it’s a general source about animal sacrifice (but why, then, ask me about blood specifically and not animal sacrifice?) then yes, there are.

Very few modern Hellenists practice animal sacrifice due to logistics, ethics or law. Even in ancient times, poorer families and people with certain dietary or philosophical philosophies decided against sacrificing animals and giving cakes in the form of the required animal instead, or they focused on giving libations or First Fruit offerings, which is a fancy term to describe that the Theoi got the first portion of anything the family would consume.

So you don’t have to practice animal sacrifice in Hellenismos, but again, if this is a specific rite that somehow calls for blood (I don’t recall any but they could very well be out there), then maybe there isn’t.

~~~

"What do you make the fire to burn your offerings from? And what kind of bowl is it? I want to burn mine but I don't know how to do it safely inside and I have a lot of nosy neighbours so burning out in the garden daily is a no lol"

I burn everything, and because of privacy limitations, I burn everything indoors. For this I use bio-ethanol, the burning agent I use when building a fire indoors. This is a form of biofuel (fuel derived from biological sources), and a variation of denatured alcohol. It’s a clear, flammable liquid which burns without smoke and without scent. As such, it works very well for indoor use. Make sure to use a cast-iron or at least solid container to burn in! It gets hot and if it cracks, you will burn the house down. Make sure to test it out a couple of times and usually if it says ‘oven proof’, you’re good.

~~~

"Is it normal for hellenists to have multiple smaller altars? I think I mainly see people who have one altar, but personally I think it would be more appropriate for me to worship more than one God and I don't have other places of worship I could go."

Ah, there is a terminology issue here that has you tripped up. Easily fixed! There is a difference between an altar and a shrine. An altar is one of those basic necessities within Hellenismos, and it differs from a shrine. Where an altar is a 'work space', dedicated not so much to a specific deity, but used to do the bulk of the (daily) rituals, a shrine is a devotional area where an altar might be located. In ancient Hellas, the shrine was usually a temple, the altar an actual altar, standing outside of it. Household worship took place at a multitude of shrines. Labelling something a shrine, does not mean you can't sacrifice at these spots in your home. In general, you decorate a shrine but leave the altar rather bare.

~~~

"Hi! I want to bring an offering for Athena,mostly because I am interested in hellenism and Athena is the goddess I identify most with.I don't actually believe in hellenistic gods tho,so I wonder if that would be disrespectful?"

Disrespectful...? To whom? I doubt the Gods care whether you believe in Them or not. What I am wondering about, though, is why you want to sacrifice to something/someone you don’t believe in? What’s the point? Nothing is stopping you, though! Go right ahead. I am just not sure how useful it will be...

~~~

"I'm new to Hellenism and I've been going through your blog to learn, but I was wondering if rituals, altars, and sacrifices are required? Because I have very strict Christian parents who are not open to other beliefs and would not be able to do anything like that. Thank you in advance!"

That depends on if you want to be a Traditional Hellenist or not. The short answer is: yes, they are required. At the foundation of our faith is kharis--religious reciprocity--and traditionally, it is only established through proper ritual and regular sacrifice. The idea is that you give freely (and loudly) to the Gods and They give freely to you. So in a Traditional sense, they are required.

Now, if you truly can’t find a way to practice sacrifice (perhaps in the form of a libation; the easiest to hide), then... well, you would need to look at the religion and kharis from a more modern viewpoint. Dedication could then, in theory, become a way to establish kharis. Set a goal, tell whomever you are dedicating it to that it is for Them before you start, complete the goal and tell Them you have completed it in Their name. It has to be something that challenges you, though. And/or something that counts in the grand scheme of things. Some examples off of the top of my head:

- Dedicate a 5 mile run to Ares once you have worked up to it
- Volunteer for a good cause related to a deity (animals for Artemis, for example)
- Collect money or goods for a good cause related to a deity (cancer research for Asklepios or Apollon, for example)
- Learn a new craft and make something with it for Athena
- Do something nice every day for your family/a person in your family for a month and dedicate it to Hera

Things like that. I hope this helps!

~~~

"As a reconstructionist, how do you feel about communication with the theoi? are you the kind that's like yeh let's grab a pint and chat it up, or are you more like NO the gods are silent and we don't deserve their attention. cuz (most of) the gods are kinda brickwalling me and I'm just like could u maybe not."

I am... somewhere between that. I think the Gods are bigger than us and if we want Their attention, we need to go through the proper ritual steps. That’s what they are there for: in the ancient Hellenic religion, it was believed that the procession with loud singing and dancing and musical instruments drew the attention of the Theoi. Once you had that, you sang your hymns to make sure the Theoi who would be given sacrifice to would stick around to receive it. Then you said your prayers out loud as you sacrificed so they raised up to the Gods with the smoke of the sacrifice.

This ‘evening chat’-sort of thing that is prevalent more in modern Pagan worship is actually very Christian inspired. The Abrahamic Gods see all, after all, so you had better always play nice or there will be punishment. On the flip side, that also means that whenever you whisper a prayer or request for guidance to the Abrahamic God, He’ll hear it. And hopefully He’ll choose to help.

So I don’t have conversations with the Theoi. I have very meaningful interaction with Them, though, through ritual. And through that ritual I establish kharis and They will think of me every now and again and make my life better.

Remember: Hellenismos is a religion where the central figure(s) are the Gods, not the worshipper. We often think all religions are, but in the Abrahamic religions, for example, it is the other way around. God is there to guide, forgive and punish humanity. In Hellenismos, we are there to honour the Theoi and if they so see fit, They will help us. But it is not a given and it is not a requirement. They were worshipped because They were higher beings and They were undoubtedly there. As such, appeasing them and building a relationship with them was not just the smart thing to do but the essential thing to do, because your life and livelihood depended on it.
Many people--myself included--sometimes forget how extensive the ancient Hellenic empire was. It wasn't just what is now modern Greece. It extended all the way down to, for example, Syria. Today: Hippos.


Hippos (Ἵππος) is an archaeological site in Israel, located on a flat-topped foothill 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) east of and 350 metres (1,150 ft) above the Sea of Galilae. The site is just on the Israeli side of the 1949 UN-demarcated border between Syria and Israel, near modern Kibbutz Ein Gev.

Between the 3rd century BC and the 7th century AD, Hippos was the site of a Graeco-Roman city, which then declined under Muslim rule and was abandoned after an earthquake in 749. Besides the fortified city itself, Hippos controlled two port facilities on the lake and an area of the surrounding countryside. Hippos was part of the Decapolis, or Ten Cities, a region in Roman Jordan, Syria and Israel that were culturally tied more closely to Hellas and Rome than to the Semitic ethnoi around.

Established as Antioch of Hippos (Ἀντιόχεια τοῦ Ἵππου) by Seleucid settlers, the city is named after the Greek language word for horse, Hippos, and a common name of Seleucid monarchs, Antiochus. The Seleucis Empire, by the way, was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.The Aramaic name, Sussita (Hebrew: סוסיתא‎‎), was also adopted into Hebrew and also means horse, while the Arabic name, Qal'at al-Hisn, means 'Fortress of the Horse/Stallion'. Other names include the alternate spelling Hippus and the Latinized version of the Greek name: Hippum. The precise reason why the city received this name is unknown.

Excavations in Hippos have revealed traces of habitation from as early as the Neolithic period. The site was again inhabited in the third century BC by the Ptolemies, though whether it was an urban settlement or a military outpost is still unknown. During this time, Coele-Syria served as the battleground between two dynasties descending from captains of Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. It is likely that Hippos, on a very defensible site along the border lines of the 3rd century BC, was founded as a border fortress for the Ptolemies. The city of Hippos was most likely established in the middle of the second century BC.

As the Seleucids took possession of all of Coele-Syria, Hippos grew into a full-fledged polis, a city-state with control over the surrounding countryside. Antiochia Hippos was improved with all the makings of an Hellenic polis: a temple, a central market area, and other public structures. The availability of water limited the size of Hellenistic Hippos. The citizens relied on rain-collecting cisterns for all their water; this kept the city from supporting a very large population.

Hellas' rule did not last. The Maccabean revolt resulted in an independent Jewish kingdom under the Hasmonean dynasty in 142 BC. In c. 83-80 BC, Alexander Jannaeus led a Hasmonean campaign to conquer lands east of the Jordan River.

In 63 BC the Roman general Pompey conquered Coele-Syria, including Judea, and ended Hasmonean independence. Pompey granted self-rule to roughly ten ten cities on Coele-Syria's eastern frontier; this group, of which Hippos was one, came to be called the Decapolis and was incorporated into the Roman Provincia Syria. Under Roman rule, Hippos was granted a certain degree of autonomy. The city minted its own coins, stamped with the image of a horse in honor of the city's name.

Its rule exchanged hands several more times before the Romans created the province of Palaestina in 135, of which Hippos was a part. This was the beginning of Hippos' greatest period of prosperity and growth. It was rebuilt along a grid pattern, centered around a long decumanus maximus running east-west through the city. The streets were lined with hundreds of red granite columns imported from Egypt. The great expense required to haul these columns to Palestine and up the hill is proof of the city's wealth. Other improvements included a Kalybe (a shrine to the Emperor), a theatre, an odeon, a basilica, and new city walls. The most important improvement, however, was the aqueduct, which led water into Hippos from springs in the Golan Heights, 50 km away. The water, collected in a large, vaulted cistern, allowed a large population to live in the city.

When Christianity became officially tolerated in the Roman Empire, Palestine became the target of Imperial subsidies for churches and monasteries, and Christian pilgrims brought additional revenue. Industry expanded and more luxury goods became available to common people. Christianity came slowly to Hippos. There is no evidence of any Christian presence before the 4th century. A Byzantine-era pagan tomb of a man named Hermes has been found just outside the city walls, attesting to the relatively late presence of pre-Christian religions here. Gradually, however, the city was Christianized, becoming the seat of a bishop by at least 359. One Bishop Peter of Hippos is listed in surviving records of church councils in 359 and 362.

The Muslim armies of the Rashidun period invaded Palestine in the 7th century, completing their conquest by 641. Hippos' new Arab rulers allowed the citizens to continue practicing Christianity, a policy then continued by the Umayyad Caliphate. However, the population and economy continued to decline. The earthquake of 749 destroyed Hippos and it was abandoned permanently.

Archaeological surveys were conducted here in the late 19th C by Gottlieb Schumacher. During the early 50s there were clashes on this border, and the IDF fortified the Sussita hill as a front post. This is an archaeologist's dream--the ruins were mostly undisturbed, and the treasures found under the debris are fascinating. However, it will take years to complete this enormous task of excavation, reconstruction and preservation.
You know, sometimes I miss Witchcraft. Not so much the actual practice of it but the emotion of it. Let me be very clear in saying that Hellenismos is where I belong and it's not even a contest if I will remain in it. It's a religion in which I can put plenty of emotion, even in its repetitiveness. To follow the same cycle every day and every year brings with it a stability, a depth of understanding and a connectiveness I have never experienced in Witchcraft. But it's not 'sexy'; it's not exciting. It's not full of midnight rites with too many candles and too much incense and that one smoke detector you forgot to turn off. It's not putting together rituals that are full of flair and creating circles that you just have to take a picture of and show all your witch friends because it was just so darn pretty.

Every now and again, I really, really miss Witchcraft. It usually happens when I am thinking of stories (I write, trying to become a writer at least part-time if not full time). A lot of them have supernatural elements in them and they rely heavily on my knowledge of ancient mythical systems and occult history. History was always my speciality--history and reasearching it. When I write is when I break out my old books on Witchcraft--the ones I kept, anyway. The ones that either inspire me (even if they are super bad and inaccurate) or the ones that are simply so good that you can find anything in them you need (written by the Parker's of Witchcraft and Wicca). Reading all this faux-history, fanciful origin stories and in-depth knowledge always gives me a thrill. It did that when I was twelve years old and it still does that now I am about to turn thirty-one.

I think it, in part, has to do with how long I practiced it and when. I became a Witch in my teens, at the height of needing something to hold on to and identify with. Witchcraft was my perfect rebellion but even more so, my perfect getaway. It gave me a sense of control over my life that I had to give up once I realized you can't rule over and force the Gods. When I submitted myself to Their counsel, I gave up that power. When times get busy as they are now, and the world becomes a bit too scary a place, I long to have that sense of power back and the escape Witchcraft offered me. The safety of believing you could directly influence your fate--and I still think you can, I just choose to submit instead.

Funnily enough, I find safety in submitting, too. I control my part of my relationship with the Theoi through my practice and establishing kharis. In return, I trust Them to know what I could not possibly have known as a Witch and let Them set my course instead of forcing it. And my life has become so much better and more stable since. Even funnier: I have found I can find that same sense of escapism I found in Witchcraft in any hobby. I can go out and play Pokemon Go for an hour to forget about another bombing. I can go for a run to get out work stress. I can read the night away and feel filled with the bewonderment of the world created by another.

I was a Witch through many of my formative years and it has most certainly shaped me. It's a beautiful Tradition and one can put into and get out of it anything one might desire. It's unique in that perspective. It is completely free and completely fluid. I both loved that about it and hated it for it. It's exactly why I got out of it and it's also exactly why I still long for it sometimes. But it is a fleeting desire because this depth of religious experience I experience in Hellenismos, the purpose it gives me and the stability are far more valuable to me.

I could never live without the Theoi and honouring Them traditionally, but I gave up Witchcraft within only a few days time. This is my religious home. And when I long for Witchcraft, I read, or write a post about it like now and it'll leave my system. Because at the end of the day, I belong to the Theoi, solely. As it should be.
Back in February, the 'Athenians’ Association' launched a lawsuit at the European Court of Human Rights against the United Kingdom for the return of the Parthenon Marbles. According to the Association, the initiative to launch the lawsuit came when the board of directors was informed that the United Kingdom responded negatively to participating in mediation a procedure, as part of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for Promoting the Return of Cultural Goods in the Country of Origin. The lawsuit recently came to court and was rejected.


The European Court stated that since the alleged crime of stealing the marbles from Greece took place 150 years ago that it did not have the legislative power to consider the lawsuit, since the robbery occurred before the UK signed into the human rights convention.

"It is clear from the nature of the applicant’s complaints that its underlying grievance is the allegedly unlawful removal of the marbles from Greece. The removal having occurred some 150 years before the Convention was drafted and ratified by the respondent state, the applicant’s complaints would appear to be inadmissible."

Furthermore, the judges also added that the Athenians’ Association did not have ' any right…to have the marbles returned to Greece.'

This action is not deterring the Athenians’ Association in the least. They said that they will continue to pursue getting the UK to return the stolen marbles to Greece. Vassilis Sotiropoulo, legal representative for the Athenians’ Association stated:

"Globally, this first statement of the European Court, historically the first court judgement, on the subject of the Parthenon Marbles highlights the points that Greece should focus on with particular attention in her recourse against the United Kingdom."

Recent polls have shown an overwhelming majority of UK citizens support the reunification of the Greek Marbles as an Ipsos-Mori poll recently showed 69 percent of Britons were in favor of returning the marbles, while only a mere 13 percent were against.

Also, MPs put forth a new Bill, The Parthenon Sculptures (Return to Greece), which was presented on July 10 by a joint-partisan panel composed of Liberal Democrat MP Mark Williams, supported by Conservative Jeremy Lefroy and 10 other MPs from Labor, the SNP and Plaid Cymru. Mark Williams said of the bill:

"It’s time we engaged in a gracious act. To put right a 200-year wrong. These magnificent artifacts were improperly dragged and sawn off the remains of the Parthenon."

Now, let me make clear: I want these antiquities returned to Greece. I want them returned because I think they belong in Greece--in Athens, specifically--and I think it will help the economy of said country. Let me also make clear that I think these legal actions are the wrong way about it and they are also quite useless. As the European Court stated: what happened with the Marbles happened long before the EU. If the Marbles are to return, it has to be because the UK and Greece come to an agreement about it, not because it was forced by legislation.

The Parthenon Marbles, also known as the Elgin Marbles, is a collection of classical Greek marble sculptures, inscriptions and architectural members that originally were part of the Parthenon and other buildings on the Acropolis of Athens. Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin obtained a controversial permit from the Ottoman authorities to remove pieces from the Parthenon while serving as the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1799 to 1803. Since then, there has been great controvercy surrounding the legitimacy of this permit and the validity of the UK's claim to keep the Marbles instead of sending them home to Greece.
Note that says 'Hercules' in the title and not 'Herakles'. That's because the mosaic dates back to Roman times, not Hellenic times. Still, the find is extraordinary and worth posting. Cyprus was under Roman control from 31 BC to the 4th century AD. The mosaic dates back to the 2nd century AD and is made up of five sections, depicting all of Hercules' labours between them. So far, two sections have been uncovered.

 
 

The mosaic was found by the Larnaca Sewage Board staff, who were opening a canal for the waste to pass, when they discovered the work. The sewage board of the city has stopped wok in the area since the discovery of the mosaic. The road has also been sealed off from traffic.

Only part of the mosaic, measuring 19 meter long by 7 meter wide (62 foot by 23 foot), has been excavated and officials believe more is still buried. The antiquities department said in a statement:

"A preliminary estimation would suggest that scenes of the Labours of Hercules are depicted and that it is dated to the Roman period."

They also stated that the mosaic was evidence that Ancient Kition--on which modern Larnaca was built--played an important role in establishing Roman culture in Cyprus. However, up to this day Roman remains found in the city are very few. The antiquities department thus noted that:

"Therefore, the mosaic floor that came to light provides important evidence for the development of the city during the Roman period."

Transport Minister Marios Demetriades, who visited the site in Larnaca, told reporters the department of antiquities, which falls under his ministry, planned to move the mosaic to a museum. The mosaic cannot stay in place because it would incur damage from water and the elements. Demetriades, who is also minister of works and communications, said the mosaic was important because

"...nothing similar has been discovered so far. It’s a unique mosaic and we have to exhibit it in the most appropriate way. The intention is to transfer it to a museum, to build a specific room [where it will be displayed]... because this is the best way to protect it."
I'm a little tired today. No, that is not the correct word: weary. I'm weary with the world today. I woke up and I have been avoiding the news. I'd rather stay indoors on one of our rare summer's days than go outside where the rest of the world is. Too much has happened the last week or so. I'm longing for reprieve from information about pain and suffering. When I get contemplative like this, you tend to get some ancient words of wisdom and today is no different.

If you have ever read Athenaeus of Naucratis' Deipnosophistae (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, 'The Dinner Philosophers'), you know that mad had a lot to say about fish. Athenaeus was a Greco-Egyptian author who lived in the early 3rd-century AD. The Deipnosophistae is a long work of literary, historical, and antiquarian references set in Rome at a series of banquets held by the protagonist Publius Livius Larensis for an assembly of grammarians, lexicographers, jurists, musicians, and hangers-on. It is sometimes called the oldest surviving cookbook and rightfully so. Not even Jaime Oliver talks this much and this in-depth about food.

In the midst of a long discussion about fish and fisherman, though, Athenaeus has one of his speakers quote advice allegedly given by others. I'll quote it as the whole passage and include a more modern translation below which combines the advice into a whole.


"On his [Sardanapallus (the Greek name for the Syrian king Ashurbanipal)] tomb, says Chrysippus, are inscribed these words: 'Though knowing full well that thou art but mortal, indulge thy desire, find joy in thy feasts. Dead, though shalt have no delight. Yes, I am dust, though I was king of mighty Nineveh. I have only what I have eaten, what wantonness I have committed, what joys I received through passion; but my many rich possessions are now utterly dissolved. This is a wise counsel for living, and I shall forget it never. Let him who wants it, acquire gold without end.'

Of the Phaeacians, also, the Poet has said: 'And ever to us is the feast dear, and the harp, and dancers, and changes of raiment, warm baths, and sleep.' Another writer's words we have, who was like Sardanapalus, and who also gave this advice to the foolish: 'All mortals I fain would counsel to live this fleeting life in pleasure. For he that has died is nothingness, only a shade in the world below. Life is short, and while you live it behooves you to enjoy it.'

And the comic poet Amphis says in The Wail from Asia: 'Whosoever is mortal-born and seeks not to add any pleasure to his life, letting all else go, is a fool before the bar of my judgement and that of all wise men; the gods have damned him.' Also, in Government by Women, as its title runs, he has similar advice: 'Drink! play! Life is mortal, short is our time on earth. Death is deathless, once one is dead.' And a man named Bacchidas, who also lived a life like Sardanapalus, has inscribed on his tomb, now that he is dead: 'Drink, eat, indulge in all things the heart's desire. For lo! I stand here, a stone to represent Bacchias."

Modern translation:

“Know well that you are mortal: fill your heart By delighting in the feasts: nothing is useful to you when you’re dead. I am ash, though I ruled great Ninevah as king. I keep whatever I ate, the insults I made, and the joy I took from sex. My wealth and many blessings are gone. This is wise advice for life: I will never forget it. Let anyone who wants to accumulate limitless gold.

And ever to us is the feast dear, and the harp, and dancers, and changes of raiment, warm baths, and sleep. All mortals I believe would be wise to live this fleeting life in pleasure. For he that has died is nothingness, only a shade in the world below. Life is short, and while you live it behooves you to enjoy it.

Drink. Play. Your life is mortal and time on earth is but short. Death itself is everlasting once a man has died. Drink. Eat. Yield everything to your soul. For I am the stone that stands in place of Bachidas."
Okay, confession time: I, like many, many others, am entirely hooked on Pokemon GO. I was a huge fan of the Gameboy games and Pokemon Go is pretty much everything I wanted Pokemon to be as a child. So I sit here writing this as a grown ass woman who reached level 21 in seven days and who will go out after work to kick team Valor out of my gym (Go team Mystic! Don't tell me you are suprised I chose the path of wisdom). At any rate, it seems not just the players have taken notice of Pokemon GO. Unless you have lived under a rock somewhere the last week or so, you know what Pokemon GO is and how it works.


Pokemon GO is an augmented reality game. Basically you walk around with your phone. Through a collaboration with Google(Maps), Pokemon GO shows you an overlay of your location and places items into it, like Pokemon and battle gyms. What it also does, though, is turn landmarks like churches and artworks into hotspots which players must visit to get items that are important in the game. This is not a new concept, by the way, but it's never been used in anything as mainstream as Pokemon GO, meaning that many people are now familiar with the idea.

Pokestops (and gyms) have become either the bane or the bread of many small businesses, who have realized that these two attract people to their business. Some find it frustrating to have a bunch of people in front fo their store or out on their terrace with their head down to a screen but it's befinitely a boon for PR and (hopefully) sales.

The wild success of Pokémon Go has illustrated the potential of augmented reality to the masses. It has also inspired a number of archaeologists to begin to ponder how iOS and Android AR apps could be used to involve students and the general public in the history and heritage of various archaeological sites. In the wake of Pokémon Go mania, gamifying archaeology presents more possibilities for engaging the public and preserving cultural heritage than ever before.

Forbes spoke with Andrew Reinhard, a scholar and archaeologist on the forefront of gaming and archaeology, who heads up publications at the American Numismatic Society. Besides work in both fields, he also writes about archaeogaming on his blog. His recent blog post discusses the role of AR in archaeology and his own quest to visit a few PokéStops around Princeton, New Jersey. He, too, has taken note of the usefulness for small business owners of luring people to pokestops and gyms and calls to apply it to ancient sites as well.

"Sites that want visitor traffic to increase should use those [small business] steps… A site is a business. It competes for one’s discretionary time and income (if admission is charged)."

He notes that museums such as the MOMA are already doing this and archaeological sites are not far behind. But why not go beyond it?

Certainly there were a number of archaeologists working to introduce augmented reality apps to cultural heritage sites long before Pokémon Go came around. Pokémon Go’s parent company, Niantic, already has an app called “Field Trip” that runs in the background of your phone and alerts you when you are near certain sites. A pop-up card comes onto your screen when you get near certain historical places or markers of interest. Reinhard was integral to bringing together the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA) with Field Trip, so that visitors to the Athenian Agora could learn more about the ancient sites. The app similarly focuses on the novelty of discovery and uses the GPS functionality of most cell phones, but is missing a key component: gaming.

Just imagine a mobile game where people could go to the site and race an ancient runner. Integrating the public into the site via competition and games, rather than just giving them Wikipedia-like entries, is what will likely hold their interest more fully.

Other archaeologists are thinking about how AR can recreate more than just the view. Some are also trying to reconstruct the sensory environment of sites. An app currently under development wants to allow visitors to see, smell, hear, and touch sites. Another AR app under development, this one from University of British Columbia archaeologist Kevin Fisher and UBC’s MAGIC Centre wants to allow users to see recreations of ancient sites in the same mode as Google Street View. The first site they are focusing on is the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Kalavasos on the island of Cyprus.

These projects make it clear that the future of classical archaeology may rely on allowing visitors not only to view, but also to participate in archaeological sites. Speaking of which: the impact on cultural heritage sites has been both good and bad so far. As Reinhard remarked:

"Some hallowed places have banned people from playing Pokemon GO while visiting: The Holocaust Museum, Arlington National Cemetery, Auschwitz. Niantic had not screened sensitive sites to keep monsters from appearing there.”

As augmented reality apps become more well-known to the general public, there will be new caveats and pitfalls to consider, but Pokémon Go will undoubtedly have an impact on the field. I, for one, am very interested to see what will happen.